Download These Adobe CC Keyboard Shortcuts Cheat Sheets

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We're not sure why it took a site called setupablogtoday.com to make this awesomely useful set of infographics outlining and organizing keyboard shortcuts for various Adobe Creative Cloud apps, including Premiere Pro, After Effects and Photoshop. But we're glad they did.

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OK, pro users likely have all of these hotkeys commited to memory, or at least the ones controlling the functions they're most intimately familiar with. But if you don't know your Premiere hotkeys? Boy, are you in for a treat the first time you realize you don't have to push that mouse all over creation just to bring up the stupid selection tool.



Improbably, blogger/designer Jamie Spencer even takes requests — he responded to posts in the blog's comment section with new cheat sheets for Lightroom and Bridge. And, yes, he promises that Audition is coming soon. So keep an eye open.​ And a new one for Adobe Audition is available now. 

Tip of the hat to the bloodhounds at No Film School for finding these via Lifehacker

Five Great Scores from James Horner … Before He Made It Big

Composer James Horner, who died yesterday in a plane crash near Santa Barbara, was well known as the man behind some of the most famous music in contemporary cinema. A 10-time Oscar nominee, he took home two Academy Awards in 1998 for his work on Titanic, including the music for the hit Celine Dion song "My Heart Will Go On."

But Horner has a long history in the movies, including a number of films with less sterling reputations among the cognoscenti. (Humanoids from the Deep, anyone?) He started composing scores for feature films when he was in his mid-20s, and by the early 1980s, he was a prolific composer of music for genre films, beginning with titles from Roger Corman's New World Pictures, which re-used his music in later productions. A good example of his early work is this lively martial theme for Battle Beyond the Stars.

Horner took some grief over his career for reusing musical tropes, such as variations on the "danger motif" you can hear hinted at in the clip above, and beginning at about 2:48 in this passage from Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn

Picking on Horner for this kind of thing became an armchair hobby for a certain indignant faction of film-music fans who traced its provenance to Rachmaninoff — but Horner's approach seemed perfectly suited for the high adventure of what Star Trek series creator Gene Roddenberry once referred to as Horatio Hornblower in space.

Anyway, Horner could move in completely different directions when necessary, as he did when he swiveled cleanly and wrote this evocative, R&B-inflected cue for quintessential 80s urban cop drama 48 Hrs.

Beginning with his early work in anything-goes genre film, Horner developed genuinely experimental tendencies — perhaps owing to the time he spent in Hamburg studying Renaissance music with the avant-garde classical composer Gyorgy Ligeti. Listen to the way he channels some of Ligeti's startling impulses into his score for Douglas Trumbull's ill-fated Brainstorm, which combines avant-garde orchestral flourishes with polyphonic arrangements for adult and boys' choirs. 

By this time, Horner's work had been recognized by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, which nominated his work on 1983's Krull and Something Wicked This Way Comes for the group's Saturn Award. Unfortunately for those films, the competition proved to be too much — his score for Brainstorm actually won the prize, beating out Charles Bernstein's score for The Entity and John Williams' third go-round with the Star Wars gang for Return of the Jedi

But Horner could still create completely different moods for different settings. Consider the way his choice of instrumentation and vocal styles conjure a mysterious and unmistakably medieval feel for The Name of the Rose.

Once he began working with James Cameron, Horner was really making music signify a movie's themes. His score for Aliens combines disparate elements that suggest the roller-coaster ride that awaits moviegoers — sneaky horror-film passages punctuated by insectoid percussion give way after a moment of silence to militaristic snares and brass, Horner's typical "danger motif," and frenzied string action.

Those keeping track of such things may have noticed that Aliens makes six scores on this list. That's because it was Aliens that vaulted Horner into the big leagues — the film was a huge hit that earned Horner an Oscar nomination for Original Score and set the stage for future collaborations with Cameron. The rest is history … but, sadly, history cut short.

If you're in mourning, take heart in this — three more feature films with music by Horner are still set for release: Antoine Fuqua's boxing drama, Southpaw; Name of the Rose director Jean-Jacques Annaud's Inner-Mongolian wilderness adventure, Wolf Totem; and Patricia Riggen's trapped-Chilean-miner thriller, The 33

Shoot Full Cinematic Style on a Micro-Budget

You don't want your micro-budget film to look like what it is. Shooting pro-style is essential. Fortunately, you live in the age of affordable enabling electronics and DIY. If you look at shooting as a utilitarian task necessary to get your ideas in the can, you will fail. I'm not going to mince words—you will be wasting your time, and you might be an idiot. Just sayin'…

Shooting is an art. It requires creative planning and execution. Micro-budget filmmakers have an advantage, in a way. You are forced to use small, light, affordable equipment, which gives you remarkable shooting flexibility. Director Sean Baker told me he's been able to go out in public and shoot a scene; and the passers-by don't even know he's shooting because everybody is shooting something with iPhones these days. People don't pay any attention.

I spoke with Sean, whose Sundance hit Tangerine was shot entirely on the iPhone 5s with an anamorphic lens. It will be released in theaters by Music Box Films on July 10, following a successful festival run. His total shooting micro-budget is under wraps, but it would surprise you. Believe me, if you have talent and put in the creative and physical and mental effort, your dream of creating a releasable film is not pure fantasy.

As for shooting with the iPhone, he said that small cameras (DSLRs, for example) and iPhones let you shoot in public with a very low profile. He mentioned that you sacrifice depth of field with the iPhone, but with the anamorphic adapter from Moondog Labs, you can definitely achieve a cinematic look. You'll amass lots of small savings. For example, the small form factor enabled him to shoot in an open diner without having to rent the entire place and fill it with extras.

He acknowledged that the smart phone has advantages and disadvantages, but having shot the entire film on his phone, he's obviously found ways to make it work. “The sound equipment is what people noticed," he said. "It's a lot bigger and more involved and obvious. You don't want to skimp on sound.” (See? I spoke with wisdom in my sound blog.)

Okay, I'll assume you'll be using a DSLR to shoot because of its lens options and other advantages, but you might consider collecting additional footage with your iPhone or GoPro Hero from different angles. These will give you shooing flexibility. If you shoot with the iPhone, consider getting the Filmic Pro App as well as the Moondog anamorphic device to get widescreen, truly cinematic results. More below.

Tristan Pope shooting "Love in NYC"

Tristan Pope shooting Romance in NYC

A Few Rules to Shoot By

Here are some general rules to keep in mind when setting up takes.

Rule 1: If you can afford a DP, or can con one into working with you, do it. If he or she is good, you will not regret it. Shooting is both art and science, and there are likely more variables than you can take into account by yourself.

Rule 2: Be careful not to overuse trick shots. You probably want a few for interest, but if you do too many, they lose their impact, become hokey, and actually diminish your film.

Rule 3: Keep your camera moving. Lock-off shots have their place, but in general keep moving with dolly shots, Steadicam-style shots, drone shots, tracking shots, crane shots and sliders. Avoid handheld unless you're making a point—shaky shots annoy audiences. All of these can be shot with improvised and DIY equipment, especially using three-axis active gimbals.

Rule 4: Interesting angles are nice from time to time, but your audience is used to and expects reasonably conventional, well composed shots.

Rule 5: Short talking-head shots can be locked off, but long ones should be smooth tracking takes from the front and and back (mix it up) while subjects are walking, or otherwise locomoting.

Rule 6: Choose your lenses carefully. Each lens brings its own feel to your shoot. Get to know what those feels are. A zoom lens is not always (or even often) your best choice, but it can come in handy, especially in impromptu shots in public where you can change focal length quickly to grab something serendipitous.

Rule 7: Watch your lighting! You'll likely be shooting on location, so time your shots to take advantage of the sun's position. Remember that the golden hour is fabulous, but  also fleeting. It's probably a good Idea to shoot flat so that the look can be refined in post. Natural light can be amazing, but use fill where you need it, making it look natural. DIY lighting is a good place to save money these days.

Rule 8: Speaking of locations, pick places you can dress before shooting. Not a rule, but try to shoot an empty plate of your locked shots so your editor can clone out when the boom dips into the frame or a hawk swoops through your shot. On that note, also remember that it's better to be stuck with the boom in the shot than to have lousy dialog coverage.

Rule 9 Generally a two-camera shoot will be better than a one-camera shoot, and that's a good reason to have an extra camera on hand—and you always do with your iPhone.

Rule 10 Avoid distracting action or awkward perspective in your shots. If there is action in the background, make sure it helps to tell the story.

Shoot Steady

You don't want too many locked-off, shots and hiring a full-bore Steadicam operator is expensive. So is the equipment. Don't do it—not on your budget. One of the fantastic advantages of using small cameras and smartphones is that you can get shots that are impossible with the big Panavision cameras. Okay, the resolution isn't as high and depth of field can be a problem (fix it in post), but with the new stabilization options for small cameras you can shoot professional tracking and crane shots with ease on a tight budget. This opens all sorts of creative doors for you. There are even highly affordable specialized stabilizer platforms for iPhone and GoPro. I like the Feiyu 3 Axis G4 Steady platform on a long “Ultra Reach” super light carbon fiber poll [pictured] that provides a means to simulate moderate crane shots beautifully.FeiyuTech G4 3 Axis stabilization with carbon fiber extension polls.

Another alternative that only recently became available is the cheap three-axis controller and motor system. For example, you can buy a kit from Hobby King for a fully stabilized, motorized Turnigy camera rig for a camera like the Canon EOS 7D Mk II, with its interchangeable lens options and excellent image quality. You can even get older Canon EOS-M bodies on eBay for less than $200.

rig 

Turnigy Pro Stedi-hand with 3 Axis electronics.

If your budget is really tight and you're handy, make your own excellent actively stabilized camera rig using the AlexMos three-axis gimbal control and motorized camera rig kit from Turnigy (also Hobby King). The rig with motors is about $148 and the 32-bit AlexMos controller will run about $170. I've seen clones for even less. You'll have an amazing platform. It takes a little bit of technical knowhow, but It's not difficult and you'll near the equivalent of a $7,000 pro stabilized rig. You can buy a complete unit with a mic mount for about $500. You might want to rent the superb MoVI rig (upwards of $8,000 to buy), but I'd go the less expensive route until my films started making money.

A note on Drones

I'm assuming I don't need to say much about the very cool uses of drones for shooting, but in the next section I'll mention a few uses you many not have thought of. I built my own high altitude drone aerial camera rig for about $3,200. I don't recommend going that route. Mine is a bit of overkill and takes two operators, a pilot and a camera person. It's more than you likely need. I've been checking out the DJI Phantom 3. It has a really nice camera, three-axis stabilization and a cost of about $1,300. It's their low end drone, but it is amazing in performance and affordable. There are a number of alternatives on the market; take the time to see which one works best for you.

A well-stabilized drone camera rig, like one of the products from DJI, can be used in very interesting ways to make unexpected shots. For example, let's say you have two people walking under a beautiful trellised walkway toward the camera, talking. Instead of making it a dolly or Steadicam shot, try having your drone fly in front of them as they walk. It's as steady as handheld, so nobody will know, until—and here's the cool part—they finish the dialog and suddenly the drone zooms away from under the walk cover and upward in an unexpected reveal of the big picture. Bad guys are coming to get these lovers and we see them approaching from our sky view.

Also, you can set a drone in the sky—like a jib but higher—and have it pretend to be a locked-off camera filming some action below. The audience will wonder how you found a camera position there. Similarly, you can film mountain climbing from a steady position 20 feet out from the cliff. Use your creative instincts and create interesting shots…just don't overdo it.

Be Creative

You can simulate crane shots with your GoPro or iPhone on a Feiyu setup with the extension poles. Hold the camera about 10 to 12 feet in the air and keep it slowly moving to cover your shot, then dip down to actor level for dialog. Another excellent use is for low-angle shots. I know it's been used too much, but it works. Follow a character from behind, shooting just their feet as they lead us into a new scene. For example, you open on a wide shot of the bustling street market, you cut to a high shot of a young woman walking from above and behind, and then you lower your camera on a pole until it is aimed at her unusual shoes. Follow as she walks through the market and into a bakery. Keep shooting as you pull back to reveal her approaching the main counter with all sorts of interesting goodies on display. She hands the baker a suspicious package.

You will be forgiven for using this trite move because people accept it as being in high-end movies. No two are alike, so maybe no one will even notice that it's been done before. Remember, it's easy to make this this a long, boring take, but you can be creative and keep it entertaining and informative while forwarding your story.

Here is an inspiring short video using the MoVI camera rig that you can think about when using a less-expensive rig. Build on the ideas you see here, adding your own twists and improvements. Next year, you'll be able to afford an actual MoVI.

Another fairly inexpensive way to capture amazing shots is to rent a Segway. In L.A. you can get them set-up for camerawork, but a regular Segway can be used if you head-mount your Feiyu-stabilized GoPro and use your head as the rig! (Avoid using the software stabilization in your camera. It's not at the pro level you need for credibility.)

Creative DIY headmount for filming 

Overall, you want to be shooting smooth, clean takes that will carry your story forward and make your editor happy. Just make sure you've planned 80% of it well. Sean Baker tells me he often gets shots he didn't plan that work for the final. Well, that too. But planning really helps keep your movie organized, especially out-of-sequence shoots.

Just for fun, here's a behind-the-scenes piece about another movie still in production, shot on an iPhone 6: Romance in New York.

Here's the trailer.

Shoot with a Partner

Even though you are shooting with a small camera, there will be times when your cameraperson could use a hand. When the camera assistant isn't helping, she can be shooting from a different angle, giving your film editor lots of good raw material for composing a visual symphony.

One of the really cool things a camera assistant can do is take the camera on a pass-through. For example, the Feiyu-mounted GoPro (or iPhone) on the long pole can be pretty versatile. For example, you're on roller blades, following a car pulling up to a stop with a pretty girl driving. Roll alongside, filming, and push the camera-on-pole slowly through the open passenger window as she opens the door and leaves the car. Follow her out the door, where your assistant is waiting out of sight to take the pole and keep the shot going. She walks towards an office building and the camera raises up to 15 feet off the ground and stops shooting as she enters. This could be a fabulous way to reveal action that doesn't look at all low-budget.

Long takes are all the rage these days and, when well-planned and executed, can add credibility to your film. Look at Birdman. Almost the entire movie in one take … well, it was in dozens of takes, but it was edited to look like one take. You get the idea.

Shoot for a Film Look

Several factors go into getting an authentic film look. It's not just the color grading.

Shoot anamorphic.

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It's an investment, but you need that 1.33 horizontal squeeze on your DSLR to get a widescreen cinematic look. True anamorphic lenses are very expensive for DSLR cameras, but you can get an anamorphic adapter much cheaper. They're a pain in the ass to use, as you have to focus both lenses. Nevertheless, It's a cheap way to get stunning 2.39:1 anamorphic footage.aspect ratio comparason

When using a DSLR, one thing often overlooked is that with some anamorphic adapters you need to have the camera in 4×3 format when using an Anamorphic lens. At 16×9, the squeeze comes out a bit off. Some of the newer adapters, like the SLR Magic Anamorphot 1.33X–50 anamorphic lens attachment, are designed to shoot properly using the entire 16×9 image plane. So read the instructions.

The Moondog Labs lens for the iPhone is outstanding. Moondog Labs is run by a pair of optical engineers, Julie Gerstenberger and Scott Cahall. Scott has also designed mobile phone cameras, HUDs and 3D visualizers for some of America's top optics companies. The price of these lenses is extremely reasonable, considering they are excellent anamorphics.

One thing that you might not think about is the anamorphic lens flares that give night shots a cinematic quality you won't ever find in normal lenses. They can be added in post but, as we all know, ”keep it simple” is the rule for post.

Set Shutter Speed and Frame Rate
If you've ever looked at a low budget film that was shot using normal video parameters, it looks wrong. There is no motion blur and it's too perfect. You definitely don't want that.

I recommend shooting at 24fps (24p), which is how emulsion film was shot. Now you need to adjust your shutter speed to get a little motion blur. As a rule of thumb, set your shutter speed at twice your frame rate. That means a shutter speed of 1/50 is just about right for 24p.

Next, control your depth of field (DOF) with your aperture setting. This is one reason that it's easier to get film look with a DSLR than an iPhone—faster lenses give you more control over your DOF. You should already know that larger aperture openings mean shorter depth of field. Don't overdo it, but a compressed DOF, especially on close ups, adds to that cinematic feel. You can fake it in post for your iPhone shots, but it's not quite as effective.

If you don't do much shooting, you might wonder: How in hell do I control the light if I have a fixed frame-rate, a fixed shutter-speed and a fixed aperture? Good question. Fortunately, all DSLRs let you control the ISO, and there is your answer. You lose control of the grain, but grain can be good.

In bright daylight at full aperture you're likely to be overexposed, even at the lowest ISO. Thus, you'll have to sacrifice depth of field to get a proper exposure. That's just the way it is.

DSLRs usually have all sorts of in-camera compensation and looks. I recommend that you not use them, shooting with flat, neutral settings. I believe it is always better to let your color grader tweak the look in one of the excellent color grading programs like Red Giant Color Suite on PC or DaVinci Resolve on the Mac, where they have tons of options. (This opinion is not universally held.) Color grading is absolutely essential to make your mini-budget film look high-end. It's something you have to study, so it's not a quick fix. It takes talent and knowledge.

One reason I talk a lot about stabilization is that it is a major component of the film look. You can use Warp Stabilization in Premiere Pro or After Effects, for example, but it's better to give your film editor already smooth, professional footage.

Here's a simplistic view that you can work from: Dark green or blue tones convey a serious or dispirited tone. A warm palette suggests happiness. (If it's too warm, heat.) Monochrome palettes can suggest flashbacks or dream sequences.

In between there are all sorts of “looks,” and the art is to get it right for the mood of your film. A lot of young filmmakers tend to overdo it in this department. Use good judgment and a bit of restraint. The person who does your color grading is very important. Get a colorist with experience. The software grading possibilities are endless and include not just color, but atmosphere. Sparkles on water and dreamy sequences in the sunset can all be enhanced to be so much better than reality—which is part of what we do.

If you must, use the automatic “film look” settings to get you in the ball park, but I suggest just using them as a starting point and adding something personal. Essentially you can get a fairly cinematic look by tweaking the shadows to the blue side and the highlights to the warm side. Then slightly brighten the highlights and pull down the shadows until it looks right. This is just a very rough idea of what grading is about.

Finally, a cinematic look has to take into account aspect ratio. Typically, a ratio of 21:9 (2.40:1) looks cinematic. 16:9 is easier, but looks less cinematic. This is why Sean Baker chose to shoot this ratio for Tangerine.

Should I Shoot 4K?
That's a big question. Everything is going 4K, or so it seems. But there are many disadvantages for the micro-budget project, not the least of which is the massive amount of expensive storage necessary. Add that to the fact that absolutely no one but an OCD techie with binoculars in the audience will see any difference. It's all the rage, as all new technical advances are, but my position is that you absolutely should not shoot 4K if you are an indie producer. If you are on a micro-budget, it would be insane. Moreover, many of the gains you get by filming at 4K will be lost in the compression steps that take place before your film even reaches the majority of its viewing audience. 

And think about post. Handling all that data is expensive in terms of time and equipment. It takes longer to render your finals after editing and post-production tweaking. It can kill you. You'll have all this data and no money to do post left because you assumed 4K would cost about as much as 2K. That's not going to happen. Unless and until 4K becomes a requirement to get a distribution deal, your best bet is to avoid it completely.

Wrap

There is no way I could adequately cover shooting a micro-budget film effectively here in one blog entry. What I hope I've done is make you consider various aspects and possibilities that you may not have thought of before. With Google, you can gather information to teach yourself more of you need to know. There is a website designed specifically to support self-taught film makers with discussions and resources: www.mentorless.com. Take a look if you're sailing on your own.

This series continues. I've written drafts of several more entries, and I'm not sure which I will do next. But I'm in the mood for opening titles. You may not realize it, but you can grab or lose the audience with your opener. I'll tell you that I have clicked off several movies when I hated the opening titles. That mean's it is of particular importance to low-budget filmmakers because it's not about big expense. It's about creating an opener that will grab and set the mood. There are things you should know.

Until next time…get out there and shoot.

-P-

Five Questions: Little Minx’s Los Perez

Award-winning filmmakers Tania Verduzco and Adrian Perez often use a vibrant mix of color, music and dance to tell their stories, whether short films, music videos or quirky commercial spots for international companies like Pepsi, Adidas, L'Oreal and Toyota. The prolific directing duo (and real-life couple) are known as Los Perez and recently signed with Santa Monica production company Little Minx. We asked them about their inspirations and how they work together before, during and after a shoot.

Q: How did you come to work with BBDO Ukraine on the Pepsi Retro "Daddy Cool" spot, and what inspired the Soviet-era spin on late 20th century cultural history?

The agency was looking for a specific aesthetic [and] a director who could develop visual contrast between two time periods: the Soviet era and today. In the commercial, you see young and old generations dancing together to Boney M’s 1970s hit “Daddy Cool.” BBDO invited us to the pitch and we loved the concept of the campaign. We didn’t know that Pepsi was the most popular soft drink in Eastern Europe or that Pepsi Retro happened to be a cultural symbol in the Soviet-era (it was the first bottled version of the product). 

The brand wanted to make a tribute to that era, launching the Pepsi Retro bottle again for a new generation. The creatives explained to us how important products like Pepsi and songs like “Daddy Cool” were to anyone under the Iron Curtain, so we did epoch research on props, art and traditions. Even the dance moves were taken from Soviet-era films.

We wanted to connect the neighbors using this great track, so we had the music travel through the building’s walls, connecting each generation to the rhythm. In the end, the grumpy neighbor surprises us by cutting loose and dancing because he remembers this essential song from back in the day. We love when creatives go further than the usual kind of advertising and let us work with a deep, interesting concept.

Q: Is it more important to you that your spots be funny or just a little bit odd—or are both qualities necessary in equal measure?

We wouldn’t say that we only feel comfortable with comedy, but of course we love that visual humor is so universal. It’s more about having a good cast, creating interesting characters, and placing them in odd situations. Using the right cast is essential; it's absolutely key to telling a good story! No matter what genre you’re working in, an expressive face in the right atmosphere can make anyone laugh or cry.

Los Perez Monks

"YOLO Monjes" for Mexican cellular company Telcel

Q: What's your collaborative process for planning and lighting a shoot, and how do you work together on set?

As directors we love to do everything, but we normally divvy up tasks according to our strengths: Adrian works behind the camera and with the DOP. He loves post-production in general and takes great care of color-grading and mixing sound. Tania works really well coaching and styling actors and is the lead on set design, production and managing the art departments.

We talk a lot during pre-production so we have a clear plan before the shoot and agree on locations and casting, then we split up on set and tackle our different responsibilities. After so many different projects, we’ve found this is the best way to work together. We say it’s like cooking: once we know the recipe and ingredients well, we can divide and conquer in the kitchen.

Q: Have your musical and dance backgrounds influenced your directing style, and how?

They definitely do. When directing, you have to keep in mind the tempo and the rhythm. Music and storytelling are structured similarly, and both can accommodate a variety of dark and light imagery. Our musical taste and opinions compliment each other quite well. Adrian is a singer and musician; he composes the scores in our work but also directs other musicians well because they speak the same language. Tania is a contemporary dancer, so she directs actors and dancers on set. Her background emphasizes the importance of body language and physical expression, and enables her to train other people’s bodies.

Los Perez Toyota

"Mr. Handsome" for Toyota

Q: Is there one piece of gear or tool that you can't live without?

Artemis and MyPantone! Our favorite directors' tools.

Awesome Sound Design on a Tight Budget, Part 2

In part one of this double feature, we talked about designing a sound plan for your film, including music and background sound. Now let's look at how to collect and execute the various components of that sound design.

Dialog
If you don't have clear, easy-to-understand dialog, you don't have much of a movie. Few things are as frustrating as trying to understand what the characters are saying because:

  1. Ambient Noise is too high

  2. The dialog is not well captured

  3. Recordings have intrinsic noise, like hiss or clicks, due to cheap equipment or bad connections.

A separate but equally important consideration is the actor's enunciation, personal accent and prosody. The latter is what encodes so much information to the words. Prosody is very important in film as it concerns things like intonation, tone, stress and rhythm. Prosody conveys information about the speaker through emotionality, the structure of the words (such as a statement, question, command or reprimand), any irony or sarcasm present, type of emphasis, or other elements of language that are encoded in the dialog—but not by grammar or word choice. Be aware that body language and dialog work together to create the message.

Zack Forsman's producer is holding the boom on a micro-budget production

Zak Forsman's producer holds the boom on a micro-budget production

Dealing with Ambient Noise
Whenever you record dialog in the wild, you are going to get more than you want. The best way to deal with it is through digital manipulation. Remove the parts you don't want and enhance the parts you do want. It is called “sweetening” the audio. This can be done in the deep wild without standard electrical connections using iOS and android apps or software running on laptop PCs and Macs. But it's most likely that you will do this back at your base of operations on the powerful desktop computer you will be using to edit your film.

You will need to have a sound editor or learn to be one yourself. Don't rule out the latter. With modern software, you will be able to perform like a professional sound editor of just a few years ago. I use Adobe Audition because I'm a Creative Cloud subscriber, so the software is already available to me. Audition is a powerful tool for cleaning up noisy dialog recordings.

Capturing Usable Dialog
I've said it before, and I will say it again: do not use the audio you capture with your camera in your final track. Use it to sync up the other audio streams you capture using high-quality mics and digital recorders. You'll use an electronic “clapper” beep to help with all the dialog synchronization.

Mics
On a low-budget film you'll want to stick to three types of mic. The lavalier is very useful in many circumstances, as are the boom mic and stereo digital recorders with quality integrated mics. Your stereo or multichannel tracks will be artistically assembled and refined by your sound editor from clean components.

The lavalier mic is your friend. It is a close mic that can capture presence and is easily hidden by wardrobe. Here is a rundown of inexpensive lavaliere mics.

Lavalier Microphones

smartlav_iphone-5-rode-ios--e1359779321532

Don't go the DIY route anymore. Until very recently, you could build a cheap, workable lapel mic by buying an inexpensive handheld mobile earphone-and-mic combo and cutting off the earphones. They cost about $10-$20 each and the sound varied greatly, with mostly soft presence. Don't do that. The best way to get excellent cheap clip-on mics, with a bit of DIY, is to buy Neewer's 3.5mm hands-free computer clip-on mini lapel mic and modify it slightly.

Neewer

Here's the deal: this is an excellent microphone cartridge in a crappy plastic-clip housing with no strain relief on the cable. The wire servicing the cartridge transmits even the slightest touch directly to the mic, making it very noisy. But you can fix that.

shoe-gooHere is what I recommend. Get a tube of Shoe Goo. It's a glue-like plastic used to repair worn sneaker soles. But it is a great product for many other uses. In this case, you can create a strain relief where the wire enters the plastic housing by forming Shoe Goo around the cable and the housing. Smooth the Goo down along the cable, tapering it slowly for about a half inch. Place the unit on wax paper on a flat surface, with the cable straight out from the housing. Let it dry overnight.

This mic is so good that you'll want to buy two three-packs, modify them, and keep them in your kit at all times, especially in the wild. They'll come in handy. What do they cost? A little over two bucks apiece. Seriously.

You will want to plug this into your iPhone or one of the digital recorders I mentioned in my last post and tape it down to avoid any transfer noise.

The Cheapest Pro Lavaliers
With any lavalier, I recommend using a windscreen outside, especially in the wild. It makes sense to buy some high quality prosumer-level mics for your kit. They are not expensive and perform extremely well.

But you can buy some amazingly inexpensive and high-quality lavalier mics that will give you excellent sound. In fact, I find that some of these perform better, for my needs, than expensive professional mics. I discovered an excellent video by Blake (that's all I know him by), who tests and explains everything you need to know to get started with lavaliers. He also points out that a boom with an inexpensive Zoom mic might be better in many situations. Watch and learn.

BTW, neither I nor StudioDaily get commercial considerations for my recommendations. I simply recommend to the best of my knowledge. Someone complained that my blog is too commercial—bought and paid for. Well, no. That said, here is a link to what Blake and I both agree is an amazingly good microphone for the money, the JK MIC-J 044 condenser mic.lavaliere Audiotechnica

And here's a cheap but high-quality Audio Technica ATR-3550 condenser mic if you prefer.

Any of these will give you professional level sound pickup. Remarkably, so will the Neewer! So: no excuses.

Your Boom Kit
I would say you flat-out need a boom mic for most of your dialog capture. Professional models can be extremely pricey, but you can create your own boom kit for very little money. I built mine from a $25 22-foot extension boom with an angle head designed to be used to clean high windows and screw in light bulbs. It came with a cleaning and dusting kit from Costco. I attached my long shotgun mic from my younger days. It still has awesome performance. Alternately, you can get a nice RØDE boom kit for about $200.00 on eBay, a good source for decent cheap equipment. (For example, you can get a very usable pro light kit for under 100 bucks.) $T2eC16J,!wsE9suw)ypCBReWZJVDjQ--60_57There are other boom kits for under $50.00, but it's hard to say how good they are. Note: boom operation is an art and science of its own. It takes practice and knowledge. If nothing else, learn to always point the shotgun mic at the actor's mouth, not at their head or simply in their general direction. It's also an art to stay out of frame. Michael Wohl explains in this video.

A Trade Secret
I found a geat scene-saving technique for capturing great boom sound in wide shots when you can lock off the camera. You know there are times when there is a lot of ambient noise in a wide shot and you just can't get the boom close enough to the actor. Zak Forsman is a director who's had to work on micro-budgets. He lets the boom show in frame. Seriously. He even lets the boom operator get into the frame, because he also shoots a clean plate which he uses to matte out the boom and operator. This is a very simple technique in After Effects, etc., and can save you a lot of heartache in difficult situations.

Digital Recording Devices
There are professional recording devices (as mentioned in part one) that I recommend, and you can commandeer iPhones and Android phones from your crew in a pinch. Plug in one of the lavaliers and you're good to go. You can even buy used smartphones cheap and have a dozen quality digital recording devices on hand with practically no budget. There are unbelievably cheap and excellent sound recording apps available at $10.00 and under that can be particularly handy in the wild.

The advantage of the digital recording devices from Tascam and Zoom is that they come with quality stereo microphones, and you can plug in your boom mic. You can hide the recorders in the scene to capture dialog. You can also employ them in your quest for perfect ambient sounds.

Using Software to Sweeten Your Sound
The that you want to get your dialog as clean as possible so that it can be properly layered in with the environment and musical soundscape of your film. You will edit your music tracks as well, cleaning out any noise so that you have exactly the components you want to mix in the end. I do not like any of the free audio editors. They simply lack the sophistication you need to create clean audio tracks for your film.

In my opinion, the best overall tool for sound work on low-budget films is Adobe Audition. But that's not where I want to start. I'll get to it. First, there is an amazing audio tool that costs about $400.00. That's not cheap, but maybe it's doable.

SpectraLayers Pro 3

Sony-SpectraLayers-Pro-v2.1.32-free-download

It is the same software used by forensic analysis labs, the FBI and CSI and is probably the most powerful tool around for isolating and processing sound elements. It's good for many other sound-sweetening tasks, as well. You can separate sound into layers and manipulate them. There are many graphic display options to help you isolate sound you don't want, especially if it's mixed in with sound you do want. It is more powerful than the spectral analysis system in Adobe Audition—think of it as a finely honed scalpel for sound. The tools are often compared to Photoshop, of all things. It's not as intuitive as Audition, but once you learn the techniques it is really powerful at isolating sounds for enhancement or removal. Expect to spend some serious time online learning how to use it—mostly pretty exciting time, since you'll be honing your skills. Also, SoundForge Pro from Sony works very nicely with SpectraLayers Pro 3 to build a complete audio pipeline. But if you consider your budget, Audition may be the way for now because you can rent it by the month for $20.00. Better yet, for $50.00 you can rent the entire Adobe Creative Cloud suite.

Audition

Audition-1small

We've already talked about Audition.It is a general audio work environment with excellent, finely honed tools designed especially to work well with video.

Here is an excellent tutorial on how to use notching to keep your dialog forward over the music. This technique is absolutely necessary to keep your dialog where it needs to be. By the way, nofilmschool.com is a very useful resource in general.

The Rest of the Field
Dexster Audio Editor ($45) is an inexpensive, less sophisticated audio tool that you can use for general sound mixing and editing. It has spectrum display, but not the critical tools for using it. There are others like Diamond Cut Forensics8 Audio Laboratory ($1499) and Audacity (free, open source) that you may want to check out. Each one works a little differently and you need to find one that meets your needs.

Working in Your Video Editor

Media Composer  

Once you have your sweet tracks, it's time to combine and sync them in the video editor. Here is where you use that clapper beep to sync your high quality digital recordings with your camera sound. It's where you adjust the volume level in a method called “rubberbanding,” where you increase and decrease levels on your several audio tracks over time to blend perfectly with your action. My advice is to never work with raw audio in your video editing program—you want to clean all audio tracks before bringing them to your video editing suite.

Here is a seven-minute tutorial on Audio Editing in Media Composer from Lynda.com to give you a feel for how it's done. If you're doing your own sound editing, invest in some courses from Lynda.com and DigitalTutors.com. It's the only way I can keep up with what's happening now.

Making a Mobile Sound Studio

You say you only have your Ipad for sound editing? We can worth with that. Several outstanding apps work directly with iOS-friendly sound equipment. Here is a rundown on working with film sound on your iPad, or even your iPhone.

Using IOS or Android Apps, you can do all your sound collecting and editing in the wild with no electrical hookup. I recommend using iPhones and iPads with the microphones suggested above to creatively to record all your dialog and both ambiance clips and sound effects. 

I use the iPad and iPhone for so many things, and this is one of them. I can plug a lavalier mic into the iPhone and slip it into the back of the actor's pants. I can plug my boom mic into the system also. I briefly mentioned manual mixing hardware in part one. You can learn lots more here.

Consider using the very reasonably priced (around $50.00) Behringer Q502 USB mixer, connected with your IOS device via USB adapter or your desktop, as your interface for professional mics. Here's a nine-minute introiRig also makes a number of mic adapters for iOS.

You will need some portable power cells, because you can't just switch out batteries. But that won't be a problem.

Google is your friend. I discovered that there are tons of videos with tutorials on how to use all the software and hardware for IOS and other platforms. Use it.

Now for iOS software. That's my focus, because that's what I use. There are more filmmaker apps than you can shake a stick at.

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I use iMovie. It has far more depth than you might imagine, but you need to spend some time learning how to use it. You can create professional looking movies, and it is killer for trailers. Don't use the trailer templates; create some of your own.

Here's a video on editing sound effects in iMovie.

You will find MovieSlate very useful for syncing your wireless recorded audio, as it will give you that sync click that is so useful. It will also help you keep track of your shots. Note the excellent Fire Field Recorder app has just been aquired by RØDE and is now called RØDE RecI recommend it. For more about audio apps, check out Kenny Myers' blog.

Odds and Ends

If you don't go iOS, you should still build a neat, compact and organized sound kit. I like the one below that has been constructed in a baby stroller.

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Use filmsound.org as a resource. It is a good place to learn current practices, vocabulary and more. Their Q&A section is very helpful, especially if you are new to video sound work.

If you're willing to invest $10.00 in learning to become a sound recordist, then I highly recommend Michael Wohl's Film Craft 107 – The location Sound Mixer course app for iOS. It will give what you need to know about equipment and techniques to get a good start. Michael's attitude: “If seeing is believing, then hearing is feeling.” He personally feels that two-thirds of the movie experience is auditory.

If you want to make a great movie, you'll have to either hire a great sound recordist or learn this stuff yourself.

ADR? Well, Maybe.

ADR is to be avoided when possible, but it isn't always possible. And renting an ADR studio is expensive.  So, here is what I propose.  It turns out that you can buy the Pyle sound shield for $99.00 and a really nice CAD Audio ADR setup from NewEgg for $109.00. The curved sound shield can be attached to the mic stand that comes with the kit, and the studio mic attached to the boom and placed within the curved shielded space with the included pop screen positioned between the speaker and the mic. Like this:

mic-setup

Not bad for $208.

Here's a quick video about ADR and how it's done.

Share the Wealth
I've just scratched the surface of film audio and how important it is. I didn't even mention how you can use recorded ambiance to provide continuity between shots done at different times. Things like this you will learnand, if you're really creative, you will come up with even more creative ways to use sound to enhance your film.

Share your ideas with us. This blog gets pretty heavy readership, but most of you seem shy about sharing your wisdom with us. Take a shot. If somebody gives you a hard time for no good reason, we'll take them on. If they are right, learn from it. But please share your wisdom. Tell me where I'm wrong. I hate it when I see comments about my blog, especially negative ones, in places where I can't comment back. That's poor form.

Wrap
This series on micro-budget filmmaking continues next time with a look at the latest amazing ways to shoot stunning film on the cheap. Technology is advancing so quickly that it's hard to keep up. We'll take a look at how the Sundance-favorite feature Tangerine was shot. We'll talk with Scott Cahall, developer of the iPhone anamorphic lens. And we'll look at shooting techniques that will give your production a high-end look (even using DIY equipment) and maybe even look at affordable aerial shooting platforms.

Until next time, get out there and start shooting.

-P-


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